作者:deam   发布:2017-08-14 22:18   围观:   评论关闭  

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Hacking Your Language Study


My favourite tricks focus on the aspects of English that are very easy to master, and I develop ways around the parts of English that are “hard” to understand. Usually, it's not the language itself that's “hard”, but your method for studying might be causing the language to seem more challenging. If you look at those challenges in a new light then they can become much easier!


Simple Rules for Pronouncing ~ed


One of my favourite pronunciation hacks for English learners is how to properly pronounce ~ed.


In my experience this is one of the most obvious parts of a foreign accent. Luckily, it's also one of the easiest to fix. Learning the right way to say ~ed can have a huge impact on your accent. But best of all it is very easy to learn.


There are only three possible ways to pronounce this, and (unlike much of the English language) the rules are consistent:


Rule1: After a d or t, pronounce it as [ɪd].


In English, it's not possible to say a t and d sound immediately after each other, so we add in the vowel sound. Do this in words like wanted, painted, ended, admitted, suggested, started, etc.

英语中 t 和 d 连在一起不可能直接发这两个音,所以两者之间需要加一个元音。将这个规则用在如下单词:wanted, painted, ended, admitted, suggested, started等。

Rule2: After the sounds p, f, s, ch, sh and k, pronounce it as [t].


These sounds cannot be followed by a d in English, so the sound changes to a [t]. Do this in words like stopped, laughed (f sound), finished, and walked.

以上一连串的字母不可以直接接d,所以需要变音为[t]。请发音如下单词: stopped, laughed (尾部是f的发音 ), finished, 以及 walked。

Rule3: In all other cases, pronounce it as [d].


Take care not to pronounce the e sound in ~ed here: just pronounce the [d]. Try it in the words imagined, cleaned, enjoyed, cried, and allowed.

请注意,不要将~ed中的e真正发出来,发[d]就好。请尝试朗读如下单词:imagined, cleaned, enjoyed, cried, and allowed

The Position of Your Mouth


Another way to remember this is to think of the position of your mouth in the part of the word before the ~ed.


For the first rule, notice that d and t are both sounds created by putting your tongue on the roof of your mouth. Because they're in nearly the same spot, it's hard to move between them without adding in a vowel! Try it out.


For the second rule, all but one of the sounds (k) is made by putting your lips or teeth together.


For the third rule, most of the sounds have either a hummed sound (like n or m) or an open, vowel position (like a or o) prior to the ~ed.


Just remember that certain mouth positions lend themselves to being compensated for with different ways of saying ~ed, and you're good to go!


And if that is still too confusing?


Then just remember this one rule: for the majority of cases, when you see ~ed, you should pronounce it like [d] (rather than [ɪd], which is only relevant after d or t). If you use this pronunciation by default when you're not sure, you're most likely to get it right.


Making English Easy


Even if you only follow this one, easy rule, it will help you with your English pronunciation, and soon enough the looks of confusion on the faces of your English-speaking friends will turn to smiles and nods of understanding.


This applies to all languages you may be learning, not just English. If you're also learning Spanish, French, German, Italian, or Chinese along with English, you'll find more hacks you can use right away in the FI3M language guides.

不仅是英语,对于学习所有的外语这都适用。一旦你学了这几招,语言学习就会飞速进步,你就会明白为什么英语学习so easy啦!


1. Learn the phonetic alphabet


Getting familiar with the phonetic alphabet will help you identify new sounds and provide you with some markers to navigate the language you want to learn. Familiarity with a language’s phonemes helps you recognize sounds that your ear isn’t "tuned" to natively. Once you can recognize these sounds, you’ll start noticing them way more often when speaking and listening in your new language.

熟悉音标将会帮你辨认一些新的发音并且给你提供一些标记来驾驭你所学的语言。 熟悉一门语言的音素能够帮助你辨认耳朵本身不能辨认的声音。一旦辩认出这些声音,当你听别人说新语言或者用一门新语言交谈的时候,你就会注意他们的发音方式。

By becoming aware of the range of sounds that exist in the language you are learning, you’ll learn how to differentiate sounds that seem similar to the untrained ear, and it will make spelling easier. This can be especially helpful if you are learning mostly by reading.


2. Get familiar with the spoken language


Switch from theory to practice: try to expose yourself as much as possible to the language you are learning. Talk as much as possible with native speakers if you have the chance. When you have trouble pronouncing a particular word, ask people to repeat it and record it on your phone. You can then replay it and train your pronunciation as often as you wish. You can also listen to the correct pronunciation on some online dictionaries so that your ear gets familiar with all the sounds that initially strike you as unusual. Listen to podcasts or stream TV shows in the language. Even if you can’t understand everything, put it on in the background when you’re doing your chores so you get used to the particular melodies and unfamiliar sounds.


3.Identify what’s "weird" about the pronunciation


With this exposure, you’ll quickly notice that your new language has many sounds in common with your native tongue (even if those sounds are written differently). With the similarities identified, you can focus in earnest on the sounds that don’t exist in your native tongue. Resist the temptation to systematically compare these unfamiliar sounds with similar ones from your native language. This might seem like a useful shortcut, but it’s a bad habit that will make bad pronunciation even harder to correct in the long run.

使用这种方法,你很快就会发现你新学的语言和你的母语有很多共同的发音(即使这些音的写法不同)。 弄清楚发音的相似之处,你就可以把注意力集中在那些母语里没有的音上面。不要试图把这些不熟悉的音和你母语中熟悉的音进行系统的比较。这似乎是一个有效的捷径,但是这是一个坏习惯,它会使你的发音在长期内更难得到改正。

Ignoring the peculiar sounds of your new language will, at best, make you sound silly and, at worst, result in you actually saying the wrong words! The difference between the Spanish pero and perro is a rolled r, but they don’t mean the same thing. And if you’re learning French, people will have trouble understanding you if you don’t learn to pronounce the subtle differences between cent, sang, sens and sans, or au, aux and eau.

忽略一门新语言中特别的发音,最好的情况下会使你的声音听上去发傻不地道,最糟糕的是它会导致你直接说了错误的词语。在西班牙语中pero和perro的区别就是一个卷舌的r音,但是它们的意义却不同。如果你学法语时,学不会cent, sang, sens 或者sans, or au, aux 和eau的发音的细微差别,人们理解你说的话就会很困难。

If you really have trouble with one phoneme in particular, use cards. Write it down along with other similar-but-different phonemes. Repeat them aloud several times. This will help you to recognize nuances and master those small differences.


4.Listen, listen, listen!


As mentioned in point two, the internet gives you access to plenty of audio material that can help you improve your pronunciation. Listen as much and as regularly as possible, but instead of always focusing on grammar and vocabulary, dedicate some time to the phonetic aspects of the language. Listen to short audio tracks and focus on rhythm, breaks and intonation. Try to understand what gives the sentence its fluidity and try to imitate it. If you watch a movie in your learning language, avoid reading the subtitles and keep your eyes on the actors’ mouths.


If you find it too hard, slow down the speed of the video or audio that you are watching (most digital media players allow you to do this; you can even slow down YouTube videos). This can help you identify and separate each syllable.


If, on the other hand, your comprehension level is already quite good, you can challenge yourself by accelerating the speed.


5.Practice, practice, practice


Training your accent requires some skill and patience, so don’t get demotivated if it doesn’t come immediately. For maximum efficiency, your training sessions should be frequent — no longer than two days between sessions. Collect newspaper articles, movie scripts and lyrics, and record yourself while reading them aloud. Then listen and analyze: What are your strengths and weaknesses? Which of your native speaking habits are you carrying over to your new language? You can also ask native speakers for input. For example, you could upload your recordings to online communities like Judge my accent.

训练发音需要一些技巧和耐心,因此,如果效果不是立竿见影,请不要失去动力。为了效率最大化,你的训练课程应该频繁一点 — 课程的间隔不超过两天。搜集报纸文章,电影剧本和歌词,在大声朗读它们的时候记录下来。然后回放并且分析:你的优缺点是什么?你把母语的哪些习惯带到新的语言中?你也可以向一些母语使用者寻求发音的帮助。例如,你可以把你的录音上传到网上社区,如Judge my accent评判我的口音。

Accents can be tricky, but never lose hope! The more you speak and the more feedback you can get (either from yourself or native speakers), the better your accent will become.



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